Before employing activated carbon for bioremediation, a number of parameters need to be taken into account.
There are several kinds of activated carbon that are best for particular purposes. A few common types of activated carbon are:
Crushed or ground carbon particles with an average diameter of 0.15 mm to 0.25 mm make up powdered activated carbon (PAC). PAC can filter liquids and gases because it has a wide internal surface and a short diffusion distance.
Granulated activated carbon (GAC), which generally has bigger particles than PAC, GAC is helpful for cleaning water and is also present in deodorizing solutions.
Activated carbon that has been pelletized is made up of extruded cylinders with diameters ranging from 0.8 to 5 mm. The principal uses for these pellets in the gas phase are odor control and the removal of volatile organic compounds.
The most popular carbon-containing materials used to make activated carbon include coal, wood, and coconut shell. The characteristics of the resultant activated carbons can be significantly influenced by The source material.
For instance, the range of pore diameters of activated carbons from various source materials will differ.
Less than 2 nanometers in diameter are called micropores. A sheet of paper is 100,000 times thinner than one nanometer, for reference.
Mesopores range in size from 2 to 50 nanometers.
Macropores: a diameter of more than 50 nanometers
A wide variety of pore sizes is used for water filtration because the pores may filter out particles of various sizes as the water passes through them.
Because coal-based carbons have a good balance of mesopores and micropores, they work well in a wide range of applications, including the treatment of surface water, wastewater, sludge removal, and odor control.
More mesopores and macropores are present in wood-based carbons, which makes them perfect for eliminating big molecules. This may be the case for groundwater, wastewater, and municipal water treatment, as well as food decolorization and odor control. Wood-based carbons may be obtained responsibly, unlike carbons derived from coal.
In addition, wood-based biochar is "more recommended than other synthetic materials like granular activated carbon and carbon nanotubes" for treating wastewater polluted with potentially harmful components, claims a review on the use of wood-based carbons for bioremediation. In one investigation, at high starting concentrations of chemical oxygen demand, phosphate, and ammonium, granular wood-based carbons showed a better adsorption capacity than granular activated carbon. The wood-based carbon's macropores, which prevent clogging and improve access to the material's micropores, which filter out smaller impurities, may be responsible for this performance.
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