Activated Carbon is made from organic material such as coconut, coal, or wood and is formed by heating the material in the absence of air. Carbon has been used throughout history as an adsorbent for contaminants and is considered the most powerful adsorbent known to man. Its use dates back to 2000 BC. It is used in drinking water filters because it’s a very porous material. This means other substances such as impurities in water get attached to it easily. It is a commonly used adsorbent, catalyst or catalyst carrier, widely used in almost all sectors of the national economy and people's daily lives.
Activated carbon removes contaminants using two processes:
Contaminants are attracted by this force into the pores of the Activated carbon where they stay attached to the walls.
the type of source material of the active carbon to determine the size of the pores and thus the contaminant type and removal level
the chemical nature of the source material
the chemical composition and concentration of the contaminant
the temperature and PH of the water
the contact time, determined by the flow rate and volumes of Activated carbon
The positively charged Activated carbon attracts the negatively charged contaminations. The level and type of contaminant removal is determined by the activation process. For example the level of oxygen, level of electrical charge. Active carbon is most effective in removing organic contaminates from the water and so improving the aesthetic appears of the water (colour, taste and odour).